The endogenous pathway of antigen processing and presentation

In this article, I briefly explain the endogenous pathway of antigen processing and presentation. The pathways for elimination of pathogens The immune system applies different strategies to eliminate various pathogens out of our body. There are two pathways for eliminating extracellular and intracellular pathogens. Antigens generated within the cell are known as endogenous antigens are … Read more >>

The interactions between motor proteins bring changes in cells

In this article, I briefly describe how the interactions of motor proteins bring changes in cells. The activity of motor proteins The movement of organelles and macromolecules within cells mainly arises from the activity of molecular motors. Motor proteins in large aggregates gaining energy from ATP undergo cyclic conformational changes that concentrate into a unified … Read more >>

The two important globin proteins- Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

In this article, I briefly describe the two important globin proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, and their functions. The globin proteins The globin family of proteins having similar primary and tertiary structures is found in all classes of eukaryotes and some bacteria. The main function of globins is to store and transport oxygen. In mammals, there … Read more >>

Importance of cross-presentation of antigens by antigen-presenting cells

In this article, I briefly explain how the antigen-presenting cells cross-present antigens. Types of antigens There are different pathways employed by the immune system for eradicating intracellular and extracellular pathogens. The antigens generated within the cell are known as endogenous antigens. These antigens are processed by the cytosolic or endogenous pathway and presented on the … Read more >>

Expression of MHC molecules

In this article, I briefly describe the expression of MHC molecules. MHC molecule and its expression The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), consists of a group of genes coding for proteins present on cell surfaces that help the immune system recognize foreign substances. The MHC molecules are encoded by a cluster of closely associated genes, known … Read more >>

Electrophoresis: The process of separation of proteins

In this article, I briefly describe the process of electrophoresis and how protein purification is related to specific activity. Separation of proteins and chromatography The cells contain thousands of varieties of proteins that can be separated based on size, charge, or binding properties. A protein can be studied in detail only when it can be … Read more >>

The receptors of our immune system

In this article, I briefly describe the types of receptors in our immune system. Receptors of the immune system The cells of our immune system use various receptors to recognize ligands. Some receptors, like pattern recognition receptors (PRRS), are found in both innate and adaptive immune cells. However, B-cell receptors (BCRs) and T-cell receptors (TCRs) … Read more >>

Immune response gets started in the secondary lymphoid organs

In this article, I briefly explain the beginning of the immune response in the secondary lymphoid organs. Development of lymphocytes Development of lymphocytes takes place in the primary lymphoid system. However, the response is initiated in the secondary lymphoid organs as soon as the lymphocytes encounter antigens in the microenvironment. The bone marrow and the … Read more >>

MHC genes and their inheritance

In this article, I briefly describe MHC genes and their inheritance. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Vertebrate DNA consists of a large locus known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The MHC locus consists of a cluster of closely linked polymorphic genes coding for cell surface proteins vital for adaptive immunity. Different MHC proteins bind and … Read more >>

The communication between innate and adaptive immunity

In this article, I briefly explain about the communication between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity Innate immunity accounts for the first line of defense against harmful pathogens. It gives uniform response to all types of harmful pathogens, therefore, also known as the non-specific immunity. Innate immunity is quite important to keep us healthy. … Read more >>