Restriction enzymes

In this article, I briefly describe restriction enzymes, their recognition sequences, and the frequency of recognition sequences. What are restriction enzymes? The enzyme that cleaves DNA at specific recognition sites, is called a restriction enzyme. These belong to the endonuclease group of enzymes. Identifying and manipulating restriction endonucleases in the 1960s and early 1970s made … Read more >>

Preparation of plasmid DNA

In this article, I briefly describe the preparation of plasmid DNA. Plasmid DNA A plasmid is a small, circular, extrachromosomal DNA molecule in bacteria, which replicates independently. Chromosomes contain all the essential genetic information, whereas plasmids carry some additional genes, which aid in the survival of the organism. Plasmids provide some selective advantages such as … Read more >>

Total cell DNA preparation and purification

In this article, I briefly describe the preparation and purification of total cell DNA. Total DNA and its preparation The complete set of genetic information is the genome of an organism. The genome is stored in long molecules of DNA, called chromosomes. Total cell DNA acts as a source for the genes to be cloned. … Read more >>

Animal viruses as cloning vectors

In this article, I briefly describe animal viruses and their use as cloning vectors. Cloning vectors A small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted is known as a cloning vector. The cloning vector may be the plasmid from a bacterium, a higher organism’s cell, or DNA taken from a virus. … Read more >>

Cloning vectors for higher plants

In this article, I briefly describe cloning vectors for higher plants. Cloning vectors A small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted for cloning purposes is known as a cloning vector. The cloning vector may be the plasmid from a bacterium, a higher organism’s cell, or DNA taken from a virus. … Read more >>

Yeast cloning vectors

In this article, I briefly describe yeast cloning vectors. Cloning vectors A small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted for cloning purposes is known as a cloning vector. The cloning vector may be the plasmid from a bacterium, a higher organism’s cell, or DNA taken from a virus. The vector … Read more >>

Cloning vectors based on bacteriophages and cosmids

In this article, I briefly describe the cloning vectors based on bacteriophages and cosmids. Cloning vectors A small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted for cloning purposes is known as a cloning vector. The cloning vector may be the plasmid from a bacterium, a higher organism’s cell, or DNA taken … Read more >>

Cloning vectors based on E.coli plasmids

In this article, I briefly describe the cloning vectors based on E.coli plasmids. Cloning vectors A small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted for cloning purposes is known as a cloning vector. The cloning vector may be the plasmid from a bacterium, a higher organism’s cell, or DNA taken from … Read more >>

Methods of clone identification

In this article, I briefly describe the methods of clone identification. Gene library The collection of different DNA sequences from an organism, which is the total genomic DNA of the organism, makes a gene library. Each DNA sequence is cloned into a vector for ease of purification, storage, and analysis. The first step in the … Read more >>

Making of a cDNA library

In this article, I briefly describe the making of a cDNA library, which starts with the synthesis of cDNA. Gene library The collection of different DNA sequences from an organism, which is the total genomic DNA of the organism, makes a gene library. Each DNA sequence is cloned into a vector for ease of purification, … Read more >>