The mechanism of killing of target cells by effector cells

In this article, I briefly describe the mechanism of killing of target cells by effector cells. Effector cells Effector cells are the cells of the adaptive immune system, carrying out an immune function in response to a stimulus. The group of effector cells that have direct cytotoxic activity on foreign cells and altered self-cells are … Read more >>

Maintenance of blood glucose level by the hormones insulin and glucagon

In this article, I briefly describe the maintenance of blood glucose levels by the hormones insulin and glucagon. Hormones Our endocrine system employs internal chemical messengers as hormones. These are produced by certain specific cell types. Hormones regulate the function of another tissue by binding to a distant cellular receptor. For binding with a receptor, … Read more >>

Organ-specific autoimmune diseases

In this article, I briefly describe organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity The term “autoimmunity” defines the failure of a person’s immune system to recognize its cells as self. Thus, the immune system mounts an immune response against its healthy cells. Disease resulting from this type of immune response is known as autoimmune disease. Self-components are recognized … Read more >>

The expression of MHC genes and diversity between different MHC classes

In this post, I briefly describe the MHC genes, haplotypes, and the diversity between different MHC classes. The MHC genes Vertebrate DNA is marked with a large locus known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It contains closely linked polymorphic genes that code for cell surface proteins. These cell surface proteins are known as the … Read more >>

Breakthrough treatments of HIV based on the protease mechanism

In this article, I briefly describe the breakthrough treatments of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) based on the protease mechanism. The disease caused by HIV and the symptoms The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks our immune system. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a chronic immune system disease, is caused by HIV. It lowers the immunity of … Read more >>

Systemic autoimmune diseases

In this article, I describe types of systemic autoimmune diseases and their symptoms. What are autoimmune diseases? Autoimmune diseases happen when a person’s immune system attacks its healthy cells. Immune-stimulatory lymphocytes or antibodies recognize self-components causing cell lysis, which results in an inflammatory response in the affected organ. Autoimmune diseases may be systemic or organ-specific. … Read more >>

The generation of memory cells and formation of long-lived plasma cells

In this article, I briefly describe the generation of memory cells and the formation of long-lived plasma cells from B cells. Differentiation of B cells to produce memory cells B cells undergo the process of differentiation after getting activated by T cells. They differentiate to produce plasma cells, memory cells, or activated germinal center B … Read more >>

Response of T cells to protozoal parasite Toxoplasma and Herpes virus

In this article, I briefly describe the response of T cells to the protozoal parasites Toxoplasma and Herpes virus. Toxoplasmosis The immune response to pathogens can be visualized in vivo by powerful imaging techniques. Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by protozoal parasite Toxoplasma gondii, a pathogen transmitted from cats to humans through feces. It often … Read more >>

Contraction of our immune response and the response of effector and memory lymphocytes

In this article, I briefly explain the response of effector and memory lymphocytes to contraction of our immune response. Factors regulating the contraction of lymphocyte In an immune response, lymphocytes can expand and increase in number up to a thousand fold. After the period of expansion, their number is suddenly decreased during the contraction period. … Read more >>

Pathways of different antigens to secondary lymphoid tissue

In this article, I briefly describe the pathways of several pathogens or antigens to secondary lymphoid tissue. The interaction between the lymphocytes and the antigens The pathogens and antigens perforate our barrier tissue to start an adaptive immune response by making contact with the naïve T and B lymphocytes. The naïve lymphocytes remain absent in … Read more >>